Dhana

Holos Global System is a program of thirty initiatives to be carried out in every country in order to face the most felt and urgent problems of humanity.

Natural and juridical persons from different countries have assigned starting capitals worth 12,441 billion Dollars. After a sequence of monetary and financial operations, the value of those capitals on the 23rd of May 2003 was 16,165,468,420,746 US Dollars, par to 13,711,169,143,974 Euro, and on the 18th of December 2003 was 14,547,409,621,008 Euro, par to 18,056,244,821,595 US Dollars.

The increase in energy, water, food, health, culture, information, communication, production and development isnít the only aim of the Holos Global System that introduces also social and politic initiatives.

The Republic of the Earth, a worldwide government system directly elected by the inhabitants of the planet with the aim to assure freedom, democracy and well being to all the peoples, was founded on the 1st of January 2001.

One of the fundamental aims of Holos Global System and of the Republic of the Earth is the equal distribution of wealth among all human beings, to improve the conditions of the badly off without affecting the well off.

In order to achieve this aim, itís necessary to bring back money from personal enrichment means of a minority to its original function of exchange means.

Unfortunately, no actual currency owns the essential requirements in order to carry out moneyís natural function, due to the enormous disproportion between the amount of circulating currency and the goods it should represent and also due to the loss in value caused by the statesí national debt.

Therefore whatís needed is a new currency, entirely guaranteed, productive and convertible.

On the 14th of June 2003 the first 6 billion Dhana were issued, guaranteed by an enterprise capital worth 150 billion Euros, par to 25 Euros per Dhana. Subsequently, another 144 billion Dhana were issued, always guaranteed by a capital worth 25 Euro per each Dhana.

Dhana will never be legal tender. Contrary to all other currencies, it will never be imposed and its acceptance will always be free and voluntary.

Each inhabitant of the planet that will take part in the Republic of the Earth and that will state, voluntarily, to accept this currency as payment, will be assigned one hundred Dhana.

Because the people living on the planet are 6 billions and 300 millions, of which almost 5 billions are least sixteen years old, the total amount previewed to be issued in order to assign one hundred Dhana to each of them is about 500 billion Dhana.

Apart from an extra five per cent to be addressed exclusively towards humanitarian initiatives, the amount of Dhana to be assigned wonít be able to be increased for any reason.

Such amount coincides with trade requirements and the limit will prevent any devaluation of Dhana. By increasing the production of goods and services without issuing further currency, the unitary value of Dhana will increase.

Dhana is divided in one thousand Kana-Dhana and is issued in the denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 Dhana and of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 Kana-Dhana. One Kana-Dhana is worth 2.5 Eurocents.

 

DHANA

EURO

DOLLARS

 

 

 

1 Dhana

25 Euro

30 Dollars

5 Dhana

125 Euro

150 Dollars

10 Dhana

250 Euro

300 Dollars

50 Dhana

1.250 Euro

1.500 Dollars

100 Dhana

2.500 Euro

3.000 Dollars

 

 

 

1 Kana-Dhana

2,5 Eurocent

3 Cents

5 Kana-Dhana

12,5 Eurocent

15 Cents

10 Kana-Dhana

25 Eurocent

30 Cents

25 Kana-Dhana

62,5 Eurocent

75 Cents

50 Kana-Dhana

1,25 Euro

1,5 Dollars

100 Kana-Dhana

2,5 Euro

3 Dollars

250 Kana-Dhana

6,25 Euro

7,5 Dollars

500 Kana-Dhana

12,5 Euro

15 Dollars

 

Contrary to all other currencies, which are not convertible, Dhana is convertible in the capital shares that guarantee it or in the capital shares owned by the subjects that guarantee it and such shares are convertible in Dhana.

Because the interests borne by capitals cause speculation, Dhana doesnít produce interests. Its value increases in time, together with the increase of the economic and productive effects it produces.

Whatís Dhana?

1. Whatís Dhana? Dhana is a currency; therefore in order to understand Dhana you have to know what currency is.

2. Whatís currency? Currency is a value measure unit and a payment means.

3. What does value measure unit mean? A value measure unit is the unitary element used to calculate the value of economic goods. As the meter is a length measure unit, currency is a value measure unit.

4. What does payment means mean? Payment means are those that can be used in order to exchange economic goods.

5. Which goods are economic goods? Economic goods are the material objects and everything that is useful in order to satisfy human needs and desires.

6. Where are the material objects? Mankind obtains material objects from the nature surrounding him: he consumes them or he transforms them in products to be consumed or to be used in order to transform other goods of nature.

7. Whatís production? The production is the conscious activity of mankind to transform natural goods and strength in to products.

8. What are products? Products are the result of the transformation of goods and of the forces there are in nature, through work.

9. Which economic goods are not material objects? The economic goods that are immaterial are the energies, the ideas, the actions necessary in order to perform activities that are useful to mankind and its environment.

10. What does it mean to exchange? In economy, exchange means to sell or purchase something in order to purchase or sell something else.

11. Whatís the exchange for? Exchange is to obtain something you need by giving back something the person who receives it needs.

12. Has currency always existed? No. Once upon a time, exchanges were made through barter, giving things in exchange of others. Currency arose when, due to the variety of goods to be exchanged, it had been necessary to use one single thing in order to measure the value of all the others and to pay them.

13. How did barter work? In exchanging through barter, the goods exceeding oneís own needs were offered in exchange of needed goods. The exchange was made between to kinds of goods: you sold one in order to have a different one (Goods > Goods).

14. And with currency? At the beginning, currency was a good you used to exchange different kinds of goods. With currency, who had exceeding goods would sell them in exchange of money and then give the money in exchange of other goods. The exchange was made among three goods: sold goods, money (also that was a goods, for example metal) and bought goods. You used to sell a kind of goods in order to have money and you used to give the money to have another kind of goods (Goods > Money > Goods). The goods were the origin and aim of the exchanges. Money was the means.

15. And now? Beginning from mercantilism on, the cause of exchanges has turned upside-down. Having money, one buys goods in exchange of money in order to sell them in exchange of an amount of money higher than the one used to buy the same goods (Money > Goods > Money). Money has become the origin and the aim of exchanges. Goods have become the means in order to have more money.

16. And then? Along with the industrial revolution, the exchanging process became more complicated: having money, you acquire resources; with other money you by work in order to transform the resources in products; finally, you sell the product at a price higher than the total amount of the money spent to buy the resources and to pay the work (Money > Resources > Money > Work > Product > Money). Money has become origin and aim not just of the exchanges but also of production. The resources, the work and the products have become the means in order to have more money.

17. How can currency be? Currency can be a piece of metal with an own intrinsic value, or a ticket representing the value of that piece of metal or other economic goods, or it can also be a simple writing representing the value of a credit.

18. Who makes currencies? It's a factory called mint that coins metal currencies (coins). Currencies in tickets are issued by states and central banks (banknotes). Other banks than the central ones are those who issue written currencies (bank money).

19. Whatís a bank? A bank is a subject in which premises you can deposit currency and from which you can be granted currency in shape of a loan.

20. Whatís a central bank? The central bank is the one that is authorised by the state to issue currency and that controls the other banks. In almost all countries, the central bank is a private body, a company.

21. Upon what does the value of a currency depend? The value of a metal currency depends on the value of the material itís made of. The value of a currency in tickets depends on the goods that guarantee it or that that currency represents. The value of a written currency depends on the credits in exchange of which itís been issued.

22. What are state notes? State notes are pieces of paper the states use to represent their assets. Once upon a time, the stateís assets where privately owned by the monarch. Along with the republics, the statesí assets became public property.

23. And what are currency notes? Currency notes are banknotes that have been issued by central banks and represent precious metals, other material goods, credits or other currencies.

24. What kind of relation is there between states and central banks? The state can pay its costs in three ways:through tax burden; issuing state currency; issuing bonds or debit statements, the obligations, which it grants to banks and private persons that in their turn loan currency receiving some interest. If the state loans are granted by the central bank, this issues currency it grants to the state against interest, the state in its turn will return obligations to the central bank.

25. Are banknotes therefore guaranteed by debts? The currency the central bank issues in order to fund the state is guaranteed by the credits the bank has towards the state that receiving the currency. Exactly what happens when a private person is granted a loan by making a debit statement.

26. Does the state payback the loan by giving back currency? Apparently, yes. Really, to obtain the currency in order to payback the loans and pay the relative interests, the state contracts a new loan equal to the sum between the previous loan and the interests it has to pay.

27. Will the stateís debt keep increasing? It seems so. In the last ten years (1993-2002), the total statesí debt (the so called public debt) of all the countries of the world has increased by the 59.6% while, in the same period, the wealth produced in all the world has increased by the 24.5% and the value of the state-owned assets has reduced heavily due to the privatisations. This is why the states have decided to cut their costs. Unfortunately, today the statesí debts have almost reached such a value it seems impossible to be able to lower them.

28. What are privatisations? Theyíre the selling of assets from the state to private persons. This way public goods (of the state) get privatised.

29. Does public debt increase the quantity of outstanding currency? Yes, because new currency is issued so that the states can be loaned such currency in exchange of credits towards them. This way, the total nominal value of the outstanding currency increases more than the total value of the goods that could be purchased with that currency.

30. Shouldnít more currency allow producing and consummating more? It would be true if the increased amount of currency would be made available to those who produce and who consume.

31. What happens instead? Instead, the excess of currency remains with who canít consummate more and the currency exceeding isnít used for production or to be consumed.

32. So who uses it? The currency that isnít used to pay products is employed in financial operations, with the aim to try an increase the quantity of money owned, without the production risks. A kind of currency gets sold in exchange of another kind. (Currency-currency). With barter, the objects of the exchange were goods. Along with the financialisation of economy, the object of exchange is the currency.

33. What does financialisation mean? It means that the market is made more of currency (finance) than of goods.

34. Can public debt be reduced? In order to reduce public debt one should devaluate all currencies by taking off the value exceeding the one of the goods they represent.

35. Way isnít it possible? Because who granted the money to the states seems not to agree very much.

36. But, would it be useful? Yes, even if the devaluation of coins would affect also the prices and really it wouldnít change the ratio between public debt and value of the produced wealth.

37. What does it mean? To devaluate a currency for a certain amount would reduce public debt but, also, and at the same extent, the prices of economic goods: the ratio between public debt and the value of wealth would keep the same.

38. Canít this ratio be modified? To improve the ratio between public debt and the value of the produced wealth, the increase in production should be higher than the one of public debt.

39. How would it be possible to produce more? In order to produce more, real economy and those who produce and who consume should be assigned more resources. Today, more than the 90% of the currency is employed in speculative operations completely outside of the productive system. Great part of the money is not used to pay goods or services but for financial brokering: a certain currency in exchange of another one or of non-commercial credits.

40. Whatís real economy? Real economy is the production, which is carried out by transforming the resources in products through work.

41. If economy isnít real what is it? Itís virtual economy, a kind of economy that doesnít produce wealth but simply increases its price.

42. Would it be sufficient to increase production? An increase in production exceeding the increase of public debt reduces the ratio between real wealth and public debt and therefore between real wealth and amount of currency.

43. How would it be possible to produce more? To produce more, bigger amounts of products should be consumed or used in order to produce.

44. And how can we consume more? In order to consume more one should have more money to be able to buy more.

45. If not? If they canít be purchased because of a lack in money, products wonít even be consumed or used.

46. And so? The products that canít be consumed or used are useless. Useless products have no value.

47. So isnít it possible to produce more? To produce more, who doesnít have enough money to buy goods he could and would consume, and who doesnít have enough money in order to produce should both be given more money.

48. All this is the currencyís fault? No. Currency is the means and not the rule of the exchanges.

49. So then, whatís the cause? The cause is the economic system, where people buy in order to sell instead of selling in order to buy. The original cause of exchanges is to give produced goods in order to receive different ones that are needed. Since goods have been sold at a higher price than their purchase one or than their production cost, goods are purchased to sell or produce, are purchased to earn.

50. What are earnings? To earn is the aim of the enterprises operating in the economic system. The whole of the earnings is divided in a disproportionate way in relation with the needs of who takes place in the production.

51. Who takes part in the production? Enterprises and workers.

52. Why are the earnings divided in a disproportionate way? Because an exceeding amount stays in the hands of who cannot consume it nor use it in order to produce, while itís missing in the hands of who would need it to satisfy needs.

53. With what effects? Since then, itís impossible to produce more, because not even what we actually produce is consumed, so part of the currency is excluded from production and consumption.

54. Whatís written currency (bank money)? Bank money is the one a bank loans to someone by making it available on a bank account through a simple registration or writing.

55. What does the bank receive in return of the bank money? Bank money can be loaned on trust, or it can be accredited in exchange of bonds or commercial credits of who receives it. Basically, who receives bank money can payback a fiduciary loan after he has had the possibility to do it, while he can grant bonds or commercial credits in the same moment he receives the currency.

56. Can banks issue bank money without limits? The limit is the ratio between deposits and loans, which mustnít be lower than a certain quote, called legal bank reserve.

57. What are deposits and loans? A deposit is the currency the clients pay into a bank. A loan is the currency the bank makes available to the clients. The bank keeps part of the deposits in order to face the withdrawals of those who deposit and loans the rest to the clients. The loans bear an interest rate that goes to the bank that is higher than the one the bank acknowledges to the deposits.

58. Whatís the legal bank reserve? Itís the part of the deposit that the banks canít loan but have to keep available to give it back to those depositing the money in the case they shall ask for it.

59. Whatís the ratio between legal bank reserve and loans? If the legal bank reserve is equal to the 10% of the deposits, the bank can loan up to the 90% of the deposits and issue bank money in the amount of the bonds and commercial credits offered from those receiving loans against credits. The total amount of bank money is par to the sum of the fiduciary loans, plus the compensations for the bonds and commercial credits it transforms in currency.

60. Whatís bank money for? Bank money can be left as deposit in the bank that issues it or deposited in other ones. This way, the bank system multiplies the currency issued by the central bank.

61. How can currency be multiplied? Due to the effect of the so-called monetary multiplier, by means of which the bank system multiplies currency for as many times as the reserve percentage fits in a hundred: ten times if the legal bank reserve is 10%, twenty if itís 5%, 50 times if itís 2% (as for the Euro). The more the amount of the loans is high the more the one of the deposits is, and the one of the difference between the total of the interests on loans and the total of the interests on the deposits is as well.

62. And Dhana? What does it represent? Dhana doesnít represent precious metals or other material objects but registered capital shares of enterprises.

63. Why this choice? Because in nature there arenít enough goods to guarantee all the Dhana that will have to be emitted in order to assign one hundred of them to each one.

64. But, why isnít it guaranteed by goods? In order to guarantee all the Dhana to be issued with goods one should have an enormous amount of goods and, once those goods would get consumed one should substitute them with other goods. This is why enterprisesí capitals guarantee Dhana.

65. Whatís the capital of an enterprise? The capital is the wealth the enterprise receives from the shareholders or partners in order to transform it in production means to produce new wealth.

66. What does the capital represent? It represents the value of the enterprise and, therefore, the value of the production means of the same enterprise: facilities, machinery, plants, patents etc.

67. Couldnít Dhana be guaranteed by production means? These means arenít easily divisible, so it wouldnít have been possible to guarantee a convertible currency with them, because itís not possible to convert a currency with a piece of building or of machinery.

68. And so? Because Dhana canít be guaranteed by a part of production means, Dhana is guaranteed with capitals of enterprises that detain such production means. Each Dhana represents a quote of 25 Euro of those capitals.

69. What does nominal value mean? The nominal value is the one that results as already paid to an enterprise by the partners.

70. Upon what does this value depend? Exclusively upon the value the partners give in the enterprise.

71. Why is Dhana guaranteed by registered share capitals i.e. capitals at their nominal value? Because the nominal value of the capital shares doesnít increase in relation to the profitability of the enterprise but doesnít diminish due to eventual deficit, because in the case of deficit the capital must be reintegrated. Therefore, the nominal value is the best warranty.

72. How much is Dhana worth? Each Dhana is guaranteed by a quote of capital worth 25 Euro nominal value. This is the value of one Dhana.

73. Who issues Dhana? Dhana is issued on behalf of the Republic of the Earth by the Dhura body, which spreads Dhana and controls its monetary system. The Dhana Regulation, enacted by the Republic of the Earth, established the Dhura body.

74.Who controls Dhura? Dhura is managed by a council appointed by the government of the Republic of the Earth.

75. Who receives Dhana? Dhana is assigned in equal parts (one hundred Dhana) to who declares to accept it as payment.

76. In exchange of what is it assigned? Dhana is assigned freely, against just the reimbursement of its issuing cost, different for each country, in proportion to the average wealth of its inhabitants.

77. Whatís the amount of the reimbursement? The average reimbursement is par to one Euro per Dhana, therefore the 4% of the value of Dhana (one Euro reimbursement against 25 Euro value per each Dhana).

78. Who accepts Dhana in payment? Dhana is accepted as payment from who declares it. In each country, all the private persons will accept Dhana within a few days from when at least the one per cent of the inhabitants will declare to accept it.

79. Can others also issue such kind of currency? Yes of course, but who guarantees it must give up the availability of the capitals he uses to guarantee it.

80. What do you mean? The quotes of capital that guarantee Dhana are pledged with who issues Dhana and can be converted in Dhana, therefore they are not anymore available to there owners but to who issues Dhana.

81. Do you need any authorization, in order to issue Dhana? Anyone can issue a private currency that, obviously, wonít be legal tender.

82. What does legal tender mean? A legal tender currency is a currency people are obliged by the law to accept as payment.

83. Why was legal tender born? Without legal tender, no one would ever accept to be paid with currency that doesnít represent neither gold or other real economic goods but mainly credits. Everyone knows the current currencies are issued against debts taken over by who receives the loan.

84. What will the effect of Dhana on the economic system be? Dhana will have a double effect: increase in consumption and increase in production.

85. What do you mean? Dhana will make the consumption of who canít consume enough increase, making the production of who would want to work but doesnít have the resources to, increase as well.

86. Why will consumption increase? Because Dhana will be useful to those that actually donít have enough money in order to have more goods to consume.

87. And why will production increase? Because Dhana will be useful in order to get goods to be used to produce other goods to be consumed.

88. Does Dhana affect exchanges? Its double effect turns upside-down the current exchange processes. The current one, in which who has money buys goods to sell them or transform them in order to have more money, will change in a system where by having Dhana you can purchase products to be consumed or to be used to produce.

89. Will also the distribution of the earnings change? It will change because the earnings wonít be anymore represented by the difference between selling price and resources and work cost.

90. What will there be instead of the earnings? The difference between selling price and the costs for the purchase of the resources and of the forces needed to produce will be considered the value of the work employed to transform resources in products.

91. And how will this difference be distributed? This difference will be divided among those that will have worked to produce and will partly be consumed and partly reinvested to transform other resources in products. This result wonít be obtained through the use of force but by using in a different way the exchange means, the currency.

92. And the other currencies? The other currencies will, necessarily and set apart Dhana, have to be devaluated until their total value will be higher than the economic goods they represent.

93. If Dhana is guaranteed by 25 Euro, by devaluating the Euro would also Dhana be devaluated? Itís not just like that. The devaluation of the other currencies, Euro included, will involve a proportional revaluation of the Dhana currency.

94. Why? Lets suppose that an enterprise has a capital worth 2,500 Euro, used to purchase a machine that, therefore, would be worth 2,500 Euro. 100 Dhana have been guaranteed with that capital of 2,500 Euro, so that machine is worth 100 Dhana. If the Euro lost the 50% of its value and, therefore, its purchase power was halved, that machine, and therefore also that capital, would be worth 5,000 Euro but, that doesnít mean the value of that car should increase from 100 to 200 Dhana. The value of that machine would remain 100 Dhana that would then increase their 2,500 value in 5,000 Euro. Halving the purchase power of the Euro, the exchange rate of Dhana would rise up to 50 Euro.

95. Whatís the exchange rate? Itís the ratio between the exchange prices of two currencies. For example, one Dhana against 25 Euro.

96. Wouldnít it be possible to fix the value of the enterprise capital in Dhana? To do it, the capitals that guarantee Dhana should be denominated with currencies different from the legal tender ones, or if not the legal tender of currencies should be abrogated.

97. Why has Dhana been guaranteed exactly for a value of 25 Euro? Because Dhana was intended to represent the value of an hour of normal work, meaning the average value of the performance of a worker in one hour. And because an hour of normal work, in order to allow who works to live and develop, should be worth, nowadays, in average, 25 Euro, the guarantee of Dhana has been fixed for such amount.

98. So does Dhana represent work? Yes, Dhana represents the average value of the work necessary to produce something worth 25 Euro. The value of all the material economic goods is the result of the work employed in order to get the natural resources, transform them in products and distribute them. In the same way, the value of all the immaterial economic goods is the result of the work employed to study a need or desire, find the way to satisfy it and indicate to who feels that certain need or desire. Whether itís a product available in nature or a good obtained through production, or an immaterial activity, the real value of economic goods consists of the work necessary (to get the natural resources, transport them, transform them in products, transport them and deliver them) to put those goods at the disposal of who consumes it or uses it.

99. Who will be ready to accept Dhana as payment? The acceptance of Dhana depends on the quantity of Dhana that will be offered. More Dhana will be assigned, and more Dhana will be offered as payment, and the more Dhana will be accepted. Itís a rule of the currency. Dhana is an exchange means. An exchange mean is given in exchange of something. Dhana behaves like any other currency: if itís spread, it means something has been given in exchange of Dhana. If someone has given something in order to have Dhana, it means he has accepted Dhana. When a certain amount (as said before at least the one per cent) of the people will have accepted Dhana also the others will accept the same currency. The program for diffusion of Dhana has been scheduled according to this general currency rule.

100. What does this program provide? It provides that each person, to whom Dhana is assigned, will find other three people to assign it to. This way the diffusion of Dhana takes place rapidly and who receives it knows what it is and what itís for.

101. How can you find these three persons? By explaining what the currency is and, therefore, what Dhana is, the cause and the scope it has been issued for: the cause is to bring back currency to its function; the scope is to redistribute wealth in an equal way among the inhabitants of the planet.

102. Does it work as a sort of chain? No, in a chain, each link is bound to the other. The chain is made of a tie, of a bond. The diffusion system of Dhana isnít a chain but a net, based on multilayer marketing, by word of mouth, used since ancient times, to distribute products and services. Itís a net like the ones that rise commonly in several relations.

103. Whatís multilayer marketing? Itís a communication system in which who receives a message can transmit it to other people. Itís a method used in trade, finance, politics, and religions and in any other initiative that is performed through the diffusion of news.

104. Why by word of mouth? The word of mouth method, without too much publicity, is more valid for a message that starts from the ground, and develops through the knowledge and conscience of the persons that are permeated of commonplaces, that use money without knowing neither what it is or what its origin and functions are or what scopes does it have. Itís the best method in order to propose an idea and a plan that arenít against someone but to do what we can to better everyoneís condition.

105. If a Dhana is in average assigned against one Euro, doesnít it mean that it is worth in average one Euro instead of 25 Euro? That would be true if 24 of the 25 Euro that guarantee Dhana were inexistent or if, in future, further Dhana would be issued exceeding the one hundred assigned to each one. Instead it wonít work out like that. Anyway, what you receive free you donít pay but that doesnít mean itís not worth anything. The same happens with Dhana. The assignations of one hundred Dhana are a present par to the difference between their value and the reimbursement of the issuing cost. For some, which, being less well off will pay a lower reimbursement, the present will have a higher value than for others paying a higher sum. This apparent difference balances the one existing in the distribution of the wealth. Itís purposed precisely in order to redistribute the wealth.